The literature on the consequences of academic inbreeding shows ambiguous results: some papers show that inbreeding positively influences research productivity measured by the quantity and quality of publications, while others demonstrate the opposite effect. There are contradictory results both in the studies of different countries and within countries. This variety of results makes it impossible to transfer the findings from one academic system to another, and in Russia this problem has been under-explored. This paper focuses on the relationship between inbreeding and publication activity among Russian faculty. The research was conducted using data from the ‘Monitoring of Educational Markets and Organizations’ survey. The results show that there is no significant effect of academic inbreeding on publication productivity: no substantial and robust differences in publication activity between inbreds and non-inbreds have been found. The paper finishes with a discussion of possible explanations inherent in the Russian academic system.
Scholars have focussed on income inequality as a major source of social instability. But the focus on crude income inequality has masked the deeper developmental problem facing many fast growing economies, i.e. the different expectations about what kinds of inequality are relevant. China is an extreme case of this issue inasmuch as its coastal regions can be viewed as comparable to middle income states, while the greater part of its rural and western areas would be comparable to the poorer nations of the world. That means that the new middle class pays attention to the issues such as pollution and status or positional goods than simple material goods. Construction costs of houses are in particular less than location. Other status goods are similar because they are not amenable to simple productivity improvement. This will make policies more difficult as conflict increases between those areas still eager for basic economic development and those richer areas whose wants and needs start to more closely resemble the preferences of richer developed countries.
Does in utero exposure to testosterone – as proxied by measured 2D:4D digit ratios – affect lifetime educational outcomes? A growing body of work finds 2D:4D to be associated with aggression, physical fitness, performance in computer science, and type of occupation. While most work tends to show a negative relationship between 2D:4D and outcomes, the link between 2D:4D and male aggression should mean that prenatal T could also have negative effects for some outcomes. Using a large sample of families in Moscow and the Moscow region drawn from the Russian RLMS-HSE longitudinal survey, we observe clear links between measured 2D:4D digit ratios and the levels of education obtained by men. Statistically significant positive associations of 2D:4D (lower prenatal T) with higher levels of education were found, using difference in means analysis as well as generalized ordered logit regressions. These findings were also robust to using different subsamples. Weaker findings were seen for women. Since many of the earlier findings have showed the benefits of higher prenatal T for achievement, the current finding of a negative effect of prenatal T on educational attainment raises interesting issues about the ambiguous effects of prenatal T.
The paper presents a large scale overlapping generation model with heterogeneous agents, where the household is the decision unit. We calibrate the model for three European countries – France, Italy and Sweden – which show marked differences in the design of some public programmes. We examine the properties in terms of annual and life cycle redistribution of a number of tax-benefit programmes, by studying the impact of removing from our model economies some or all of them. We find that whether one considers a life cycle or an annual horizon, and whether behavioural responses are accounted for or not, has a large impact on the results. The model may provide useful insights for policy makers on which kind of reforms are more likely to achieve specific equity objectives.
Psychology is a discipline standing at the crossroads of hard and social sciences. Some of psychology journals are attributed to SCIE in Web of Science database while others to SSCI (and some to both). So it is especially interesting to study bibliometric characteristics of psychology journals. We study not the citedness itself (IF etc.) but the citation distribution across papers within psychology publications. This is, so to say, “indicators of the second order” which measure the digression of the citations received by individual papers from the journal’s average. This also influences the publication strategies of the authors. Some journals guarantee to the author receiving of the mean number of citations while others have much more “All or Nothing” grade when any individual paper may have many cites or not have them at all. We also define four different types of psychology journals and explore their characteristics separately.
During several decades Soviet academic psychology community was isolated from the West, but after the collapse of the Soviet Union each of the 15 countries went its own way in economic, social, and scientific development. The paper analyses publications from post-Soviet countries in psychological journals in 1992–2016, i.e. 25 years after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Results show that 15 post-Soviet countries have produced in sum less than one percent from the world output in psychological journals. There is a huge diversity in the number of papers between 15 post-Soviet countries. Russia, Estonia, and Lithuania are the leaders among them. Authors of the more than 90% of all post-Soviet countries' papers are affiliated with these three countries. The most intensive collaboration is between Russia, Estonia, Lithuania, and Georgia and between three Baltic countries. Post-Soviet countries also differ in publication patterns.
We document the descriptive statistics and detailed regression outputs for educational attainment and measured 2D:4D ratios, based on the RLMS data (20th round, conducted in 2011–2012). Regression analysis is conducted using STATA 13, gologit2 which is a special code for the generalized ordered logit regression in STATA environment. We provide graphs of differences in means of 2D:4D ratios by educational attainment. Information about the distribution of self-identified nationalities and fields of university degrees of respondents is presented.
There are many studies revealing factors which influence the demand for financial services. However genetic features, determining the individual's overall postnatal behaviour, have not been studied within this context. This paper extends the previous literature by studying to what extent individual biological endowment, proxied by prenatal testosterone (PT, measured by the 2D:4D ratio), can determine personal demand for bank services and insurance. We use the data from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS) of 2011–2012. Our findings confirm the existence of the link between inherent biological variation and financial inclusion: PT affects the use of bank cards, intention to borrow from a bank, having a bank deposit and the consumption of insurance products.
Status epilepticus (SE) provokes changes, which lead to neuronal alterations. Endocannabinoids (eCBs) can affect the neuronal survival during excitotoxicity and brain damage. Using a kainic acid (KA)-induced experimental SE model, we investigated whether cellular changes entail damage to endoplasmic reticulum (ER), mitochondria, and nuclei in hippocampal cells (CA1 field), and whether these alterations can be diminished by treatment with URB597, an inhibitor of eCB enzymatic degradation.Material and methods
SE was induced in Wistar rats by the microinjection of KA into the lateral ventricle. URB597 or a vehicle (10% DMSO) were injected in the same way into the brain of animals 24 h after the KA infusion and then daily for the next nine days. The behavior of animals was controlled visually and recorded with a video system. The intensity of SE significantly varied in different animals. Convulsive (stages 3–5 according to the Racine scale) and nonconvulsive seizures (mainly stages 1, 2 and rarely 3, 4) were recognized.Results
Two weeks after SE, a significant loss of hippocampal cells occurred in animals with KA injections. In survived cells, ultrastructural alterations in ER, mitochondria, and nuclei of hippocampal neurons were observed. The degree of cell injury depended on the severity of SE. Alterations evoked by moderate seizures were prevented or diminished by URB597, but strong seizures induced mostly irreversible damage.Conclusions
The beneficial impact of the FAAH inhibitor URB597 can give impetus to the development of novel neuroprotective strategies.
Homophily is considered by network scientists as one of the major mechanisms of social network formation. However, the role of dynamic homophily in the network growth process has not been investigated in detail yet. In this paper, we estimate the role of homophily by various attributes at different stages of online network formation process. We consider the process of online friendship formation in the Vkontakte social networking site among first-year students at a Russian university. We reveal that at the beginning of the network formation a similarity in gender and score in entrance exams plays the key role, while by the end of network establishment period the role of the same group affiliation becomes more important. We explain the results with the tendency of students to follow different strategies to control the information flow in their social environment. Do you want to read the rest of this chapter? Homophily Evolution in Online Networks: Who Is a Good Friend and When?.
In an interconnected and globally competitive environment, faculty mobility across countries has become widespread, yet is little understood. Grounded in qualitative methodology, this volume offers a cutting-edge examination of internationally mobile academics today and explores the approaches and strategies that institutions pursue to recruit and integrate international teachers and scholars into local universities. Providing a range of research-based insights from case studies in key countries, this resource offers higher education scholars and administrators a comparative perspective, helping to explain the impact that international faculty have on the local university, as well as issues of retention, promotion, salaries, and the challenges faced by these internationally mobile academics.
This article aims to analyze the psychometric properties of the Russian version of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9) by using a sample of 1783 employees of a large Russian organization. We conducted a series of Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) tests of the factorial structure and the configural, metric, scalar, factor variance, factor covariance, and factor means invariances of the model across gender and age groups. The validity of the Russian version of the UWES-9 was investigated by studying its relationship with burnout, job satisfaction, life satisfaction, and turnover intention. The CFA showed that both the 1-factor and the 3-factor models of the UWES-9 fit well with the data, but the 3-factor model demonstrates a significantly better fit. However, the differences are minor; therefore, in practical terms, the models are identical. Thus the Russian version of the UWES-9 can be used both as a three-scale measurement and as a single scale of work engagement. Results from the multi-group CFA provided evidence of factorial invariance of the 3-factor model across gender and age groups. Internal consistencies of the vigor, dedication, and absorption subscales are acceptable. The results also suggested the convergent, discriminant, and incremental validity of the UWES-9, as shown by its relationship with burnout, job satisfaction, life satisfaction, and turnover intention. The article also discusses the differences in levels of work engagement within different gender and age groups. Overall, the results show that the Russian version of the UWES-9 demonstrates acceptable psychometric properties comparable with the original version and those in other languages. The Russian version of the UWES-9 can therefore be recommended for use in research and practice.
This paper studies the dynamics of key characteristics of the academic profession in Russia based on the analysis of university faculty in the two largest cities in Russia – Moscow and St Petersburg. We use data on Russian university faculty from two large-scale comparative studies of the academic profession (‘The Carnegie Study’ carried out in 1992 in 14 countries, including Russia, and ‘The Changing Academic Profession Study’, 2007–2012, with 19 participating countries and which Russia joined in 2012) to look at how faculty’s characteristics and attitudes toward different aspects of their academic life changed over 20 years (1992–2011) such as faculty’s views on reasons to leave or to stay at a university, on university’s management and the role of faculty in decision making. Using the example of universities in the two largest Russian cities, we demonstrate that the high degree of overall centralization of governance in Russian universities barely changed in 20 years.
Our paper provides comparisons of teaching/research preferences and views on statements concerning personal strain associated with work, academic career perspectives, etc., not only in Russian universities between the years 1992 and 2012, but also in Russia and other ‘Changing Academic Profession’ countries.
Is in utero exposure to testosterone correlated with earnings? The question matters for understanding determinants of wage differences that have attracted so much attention among economists in the past decade. Evidence indicates that markers for early testosterone exposure are correlated with traits like risk-taking and aggressiveness. But it is not at all clear how such findings might map into labor market success. We combine unique data from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey with measured markers (2D:4D ratios) for testosterone exposure and find that lower digit ratios (higher T) correlate with higher wages for women and for men, when controlling for age, education and occupation. There is also some evidence of a potential non-linear, inverse U-effect of digit ratios on wages but this is sensitive to choice of specification. These findings are consistent with earlier work on prenatal T and success in careers (Coates et al., 2009) but inconsistent with the work of Gielen et al. (2016) who find differing effects for men and women.